Larval Trematode Diversity in Kuwait Bay


Kuwaiti Bay is the most prominent feature of the marine environment of Kuwait.

  • The Bay is an elliptically shaped bay that protrudes from the Arabian Gulf in westward direction at its northwestern corner.
  • It is of a moderate size (850 kmĀ²) with an average water depth of 5 m and a maximum depth of 20 m at the entrance (Al-Ghadban, 2004).
  • The northern shoreline is a pristine shore and the southern shores of the Bay hosts urban activities, i.e., ports and power and desalination plants.
  • The Bay is shallow, relatively well-sheltered and bordered by extensive inter-tidal mudflats created by the floodwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers which enter the north end of the Gulf through the Shatt Al-Arab waterway.
  • The intertidal zone is bound landward by a wide coastal Sabkha (low land occasionally flooded by water by high tide).
  • Strong tidal currents in the Bay provide good flushing of the water of the Bay and about 30% of the water of the bay is exchanged in a normal tidal cycle.
  • The water quality in Kuwait Bay is acceptable; dissolved oxygen levels are above the minimum accepted limits, biological oxygen demand is low, trace metal concentrations are also low, and pH values are within acceptable limits.


  • The Bay presents a unique ecosystem and a significant nursery ground for many species of fish, shrimp and crustacean.
  • The Bay is an important staging and wintering area for migratory waterfowl, and at least 70 bird species have been reported.
  • The Bay supports a thriving fishing industry and contains a site of an aquaculture facility production sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) (Glibert, et al., 2004).
  • The sabkha area in the Bay provides a secure roosting site for thousands of shorebirds and other waterfowl which feed on the adjacent mudflats at low tide.
  • The vast mudflats support a large population of mudskippers (Gobiidae) and crustaceans.
  • Crabs are extremely numerous; at least 13 species have been recorded.
  • The Bay is an important nursery area for crustaceans and a very important staging and wintering area for migratory waterfowl, occasionally holding over 20,000 birds including over 1 % of the regional populations of at least five species (Dromas ardeola, Calidris alpina, Tringa cinerea, Larus ridibundus and L. genei).
  • Islands in the vicinity of the Bay are nesting locations for migrating Green and Hawksbill turtles.

Copyright 2010, Kuwait University-College of Science - Dept. of Biological Sciences

Larval Trematode Diversity in Kuwait Bay